Chapter 2

Relationship of humankind and food

Section 1 : The center of human life lies is food.

Section 2 : Amusement of food

Section 3 : Beginning of cooking with fire

Reference : Comments on related words


The center of human life is food

 There is no space for doubt that the necessity of human life are clothing, shelter and food, further the center of them is food. 『The Rites of Zhou』 says, "The purpose of living in the world is to eat and to be safe." This is an ancient Chinese's view of life. 『Hón fàn kŏu yì』 sets food in the first position of politics, also 『Dà Chuán』 says, "Eating is the beginning of all things, which is the essence of human beings." And The ancient China figured Ding as treasure of the symbolize of highest power of the state, because Ding is a cooking pot for food.
 In 『Tsurezuregusa』, Those necessary for human beings are food, clothing, and shelter, and among them, food is listed first. Certainly "People do not live by bread only" is a golden message from more than a thousand years ago. But on the other hand it is also ture that people can not live without bread. About this matter, 『Hanfeizi 』 says, "Humankind do not belong to the heavens, the under do not stick on the ground, the root of humankind must be the intestinal and stomach. It is impossible to live without eating." It is very true.

 Even if we look at our present lives, most of our living expenses are mainly food, and food expenses are generally 50 to 70% of total living expenses in middle-class families. Moreover, most of the life of the animal is spent for eating, most of the primitive organism, all of their bodies are stomachs, and many of them have no other functions.
 Let's see it as the origin of house construction. The house is started with the furnace as the center, and since the furnace is the kitchen for food, it can be said that the center of the house is in the kitchen. The living room and the kitchen became to be distinguished later.
 William.E.Laxon.Sweet wrote 『British life』, In this book, He insisted that, in the UK, if the house is a castle, the dining room is core building. In other words, it can be said that the center of British family is in the dining room, and the center of Japanese family is at Irori ( the fireplace ). Germans are proud of making kitchens better than guest room and devoting themselves to arranging kitchen utensils more than cosmetics and clothing for bridegrooming tools for newlywed brides.
 Also in Japan, you can see that the idea that the kitchen is a sacred place still remains in the farmer 's house, such as refining the cooking stove, lighting the lantern every night and makeing a sacrifice.

 In 『Liji』, Before eating or drinking, it was Stipulated to pour a small amount on the ground, place a dish, then worship. Chinese people still keep this ceremony still.
 Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges's 『The Ancient City (La Cité antique)』 explained, Before eating, Greeks placed upon the altar the first fruits of the food. Even in Japan, customs of worshiping after meals are still frequently found in rural areas.
 Chinese book, 『Jingchu Suishiji』 says, "There was a man, he is Lí who is a son of Zhurong. This man was called another name, Zhurong also. and he was enshrined and became Kitchen God later. People worship this kitchen god by pork and alcohol on 8th December."
 In our country, Japan, two of kitchen gods, Okitsuhiko and Okitsuhime are worshiped. (Kojiki : 古事記)
 At Egypt, it is well known that Orisis is worshiped by national as food's god. And the earliest astronomical and calendar studies in China, Chaldea, etc. were initiated for trying to know the seasons of sowing of agriculture which is the root of food. 『Shang Shu』Canon of Shun says, "It's time for food." In this reason, there are many picture of food cooking were carved on Pyramid of Egypt and ancient Chinese rock wall.

 The influence of meals on the spirit of people is also an important factor that should not be overlooked. 『Lü Shi Chun Qiu』 says, "Even if the mouth wants nutrition, if the heart is not fun it will not be able to eat even if you have five kind of good taste [ gomi:五味 ] in front." It is certain that everyone experiences instability of the spirit that may lead to a decline in appetite. Even more strangely, modern scholars also insist that people feel frustrated at any time on an empty stomach, and it is said, people are more prone to further deterioration when during such as group movements. It is described in 『Lü Shi Chun Qiu』 that Duke Ling of Jin killed a chef because of the bear's palm was not cooked sufficiently. Also, there is a historical fact that the woman suicide because she was not unable to get Namasu (膾) cuisine with his father for fighting, in 『Wu Yue Chun Qiu』. These are quite extreme example, but there is no doubt that people's heart tends to be turbulent if taste is not satisfied when on an empty stomach. Chinese old book says, "Food is connected to the spirit, the taste makes the heart peaceful." Also 『Chun Qiu Zuo Zhuan』 says, "The food clears up the melancholy and quells the anger." And 『Lü Shi Chun Qiu』 says, "If the mouth is always filled with delicacy, the spirit will be relaxing well. If you learn this, even under all circumstances you can get shrewd."

 Both in the West and the Orient, people have a dinner and chatting together for deepen friendship, there are reasons for that. It can be said that the proverb says "the crying with relative together, the eating with other people together" or " Would you like a Chazuke (rice with tea poured over it)? " is an expression of food and human relations.
 The Qin Emperor who asked heaven for an immortal medicine, and the Emperor of the Han who looked for the technique of longevity, eventually understood that the only solution is eating food continually.
 『Mozi』 says, Even Confucius ate a boiled pork which was prepared by Zhong-You, without asking where got it from, during the disaster of Chen-Cai. You can understand that the saints drink stolen water when he is thirsty.
 Jesus Christ, the Son of God, did the last sacrament on the eve of being hung on the cross and farewell to his disciples.
 Buddha stoped the fast and taking food, became possible to teach the world about the revelation of that extraordinary knowledge.

 Clothing and living are not necessarily absolute compared to food. In the South Sea Islands, Africa, Taiwan and others there are some races who live without clothes for a lifetime. Even though it is not surprising that these tropical barbarians live naked, Kamchadal, a group of the Eskimo in the northern extreme cold region, burns the walrus oil in the indoors built with ice, surround the furnace and live in nude.
 In Japan as well, in Kyushu and Okinawa coastal areas, there are many people that live in nude in half of the year.

 The necessity for house is even lighter. Not to mention barbarians in Africa and the South Sea Islands, many people stay as homeless even in London, New York City.

 Love and appetite are paired, and these are said to be important matters in life. Indeed the animal forgets to eat when it is in the reproductive stage, and even fighting for females and even sacrifices life often. Like human beings, from youth to late middle age often take extreme actions because of their love. For these reasons, Westerners say that there is always a woman behind a crime, 『Mengzi』 says, "Appetite and love are people's nature." Duke Gong of Zhou warns that love is enough element to let the country collapse. However, most people who are passionate about love are from adolescence to middle age, and in childhood they do not feel this at all, but after late middle age, it gradually disappear.
 A scholar argues that the life expectancy of a single person is relatively short from the statistics of mortality rate, but this is an uncertain theory. Some people are pale in love. Or some people do not feel lust. Also, some of people forgotten their sexual desire by being enthusiastic their own business are field in technicians, scholars, politicians and others. In particular, despite the fact that some monks and religious people are usually single till the end of life, they are not short lived particularly. Rather, it seems that the pale single life is also a secret to keeping longevity.
 The castration was actively being carried on in ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, etc. to eliminate lust. Chinese eunuchs were a different purpose, but they are same group of the castration. However, I have never heard that there is a dramatic impact on the length of life.

Amusement of food

 Already I agueed on the section one, It can be said that food is the only absolute burden to the request to live. But that burden is a good medicine that is not bitter tasting, giving the tongue a pleasant taste and making the spirit feel refreshed, so that human preferences arise from this, and entertainment also happened by this. Preference and entertainment happens, it may degenerate into pleasure and fun and forward to debauchery. Long time ago, King Zhou hanging meat, making a forest, saving alcohol in a pond, let naked men and women serve in the meantime and doing a long night banquet. "The night of party" is a banquet that took one hundred and twenty days, and Sake Ike is not the exaggeration peculiar to China. 『Kuodizhi』says, "Three thousand people who make a alcohol pond and drink alcohol at the 50 km west of the prefecture of Wei Province." The size of the liquor pond was as large as to carry things with the ship floating, and climbed a hill made by stacking foods, it was able to see 40 km square from there. It can be said that large scale party was beyond imagination, because sake was transported by car and cuisines were distributed by horseman.
 Looking for a story against this in the west will be the big feast of King Almaresol in the Abbasid Caliphate. King Almaresol prepared an Oriental style dish in the brilliant palace of Baghdad and sacrificed 40,000 calves and 50,000 sheep at one time for this banquet. It can be said this banquet was comparable to the banquet of King Zhou in China.

 In Roman times, Caesar 's triumphal celebration was also said to have been quite large scale. At that time, Caesar was wearing purple clothes and sitting on a golden making chair, where all the royal family from many countries gathered and have an audience with Caesar. King Muir, King Numidia, Goals, Iberia, Britain, Armenia, Syria, and Cleopatra King Egypt were also there. This celebration continued for 40 days as citizens cheered. In the center of the venue, 2,822 gold coins, weighing 24,114 pounds are displayed, and the visitor's eyes were surprised by these. Then, all the entertainment such as music, light work, tightrope walking, butoh, magic, Houma's poetry etc. were played. It has been said that delicacies taken from the conquering areas of various countries around the world were cooked in oriental style, these are on plates of gold and silver, and a dinner table for 22,000 people was prepared at that time.

 The custom of Roman at that time was that all the food and drink was put on the sofa sideways at the party. This is because pressure on the stomach is low, it can eat more than normal amount. And if guest got tired of the delicacy food, there was a sink near the banquet, guest went to there, spit out food using chemicals, washed the stomach and stucked to the table again. In this way it was customary to become satiety with alcohol and food many times. Also, looking at the luxury of the Roman citizens of those days, it is said that wealthy Lucullus had always spent 8,500,000 yen on one meal. There is a record when inviting Caesar and Cicero two people, Lucullus spent 17,000,000 yen in fact.
 At the same period, there are record that Pitelus of new rich spent 36 billion yen in food expenses for 7 months, And in the evening party hosted by Berus emperor, casted a huge cost of 220 million yen for 12 people, Antony gave a vast mansion residing in the magnesian citizen because liked his chef's cooking and Sarastol gave a 100,000 sestar salary to the cook. According to 『Trimalchio's dinner』 of Petronius, there was great progress in Roman gastronomic way (Gastropammin), its deliciousness, rare odds and luxuries are impossible to imagine by today's people probably.

 The long night banquet at Tremy Royal Palace hosted by Egyptian Queen Cleopatra, together with the political strategy to win the Roman general Antony and self vanity, its luxury and richness was the highest experience of humans, so it is said that Roman officers were also surprised. Using perfume perfumes collected from roses for fountains, waterfalls or bathtubs, Beautiful boys and girls who were dressed of brilliant embroidery made a group and played music and singing and the party began. All of plates were made of gold and silver, which has jewels stuck. All of chairs are also made by gold and decorated with purple diamonds. And these gold and silver and jewelry became gifts for visitors, when the feast was over and dissolved.
 The long night banquet of the Royal Palace of Tremy, unlike that of the Chinese style, It is one night banquet during the series of feasts. That night, the guests who attended the party were thinking that the limit came for the queen's party, because cuisine became simple. When the toast had been done many times and drunken a little, a maid put a cup of vinegar in front of the queen. Cleopatra removed the decoration that had been attached to the ear, but this earring is the pearl that has been known to the world and it is the most beautiful, also It was a treasure which was took over from the ancestor with the crown of the kingdom. Historian Dryden's description states that one of these large pearls was worth to buy one kingdom. The queen now took off one of the big pearls with the same value as this one kingdom from her ear, and sank this pearl to the bottom of the cup filled with vinegar, she waited for it to dissolve and drank it all at once. One Roman warlordsmen who was surprised by the signs that Cleopatra tried to sank another remaining large pearl, he took this from her hand and said "This is enough for this evening's ceremony, I would like to have one of the items, I will receive for my souvenir to my home country." he brought it back to Rome, divided it into two, made a pair of earrings, and dedicated it as a treasure to the temple of Venus called Pantheon.

 If you look for something comparable to Caesar's triumphal celebration in the East, that is a party of Emperor Wu of Han. (Caesar's heyday is the same era as Emperor Wu of Han, Caesar British conquest falls as Yuanfeng year of Han) According to 『Han Shu Western Regions tradition』, At this time, rare creature from all over the world and foreign animals were gathered, and a vast zoo was opened. Digging the pond in Kunming, building many royal palaces, building a tower, putting the curtains over. The emperor wore layered vivid colors cloth on the back with the folding screen decorated by calligraph, sitting in the middle about the jewel's desk, he hosted Dance, acrobatics, tightrope, music, magic, and sumo wrestling.

 Even after the Middle Ages, the feast of Night of Emperor Yang of Sui, and Versailles palace of France of Louis XVI, are famous for luxury.

 How luxurious the meal of the Palace of Versailles was extraordinary can be seen in 『Origines de la France contemporaine』 written by Hippolyte Taine.
 There are three sections of the table service, the first for the king and his younger children; the second, called the little ordinary, for the table of the grand-master, the grand-chamberlain and the princes and princesses living with the king; the third, called the great ordinary, for the grand-master's second table, that of the butlers of the king's household, the almoners, the gentlemen in waiting, and that of the valets-de-chambre, in all three hundred and eighty-three officers of the table and one hundred and three waiters, at an expense of 2,177,771 livres; besides this there are 389,173 livres appropriated to the table of Madame Elisabeth, and 1,093,547 livres for that of Mesdames, the total being 3,660,491 livres for the table. The wine-merchant furnished wine to the amount of 300,000 francs per annum, and the purveyor game, meat and fish at a cost of 1,000,000 livres. Only to fetch water from Ville-d'Avray, and to convey servants, waiters and provisions, required fifty horses hired at the rate of 70,591 francs per annum. The privilege of the royal princes and princesses "to send to the bureau for fish on fast days when not residing regularly at the court," amounts in 1778 to 175,116 livres. On reading in the Almanach the titles of these officials we see a Gargantua's feast spread out before us. The formal hierarchy of the kitchens, so many grand officials of the table,—the butlers, comptrollers and comptroller-pupils, the clerks and gentlemen of the pantry, the cup-bearers and carvers, the officers and equerries of the kitchen, the chiefs, assistants and head-cooks, the ordinary scullions, turnspits and cellarers, the common gardeners and salad gardeners, laundry servants, pastry-cooks, plate-changers, table-setters, crockery-keepers, and broach-bearers, the butler of the table of the head-butler,—an entire procession of broad-braided backs and imposing round bellies, with grave countenances, which, with order and conviction, exercise their functions before the saucepans and around the buffets.

 In Toyotomi Hideyoshi era in Japan there are Kitano's big tea ceremony held in the Momoyama period, Daigo's cherry-blossom viewing etc. Tea ceremony was done for 10 days from October 1, 1587, at that time, the notice content of display panel at each place was as follows.

 1, Anyone can attend the tea ceremony regardless of young people, town people, farmers or less, Please bring kettle, pot, drinks. if you have not tea, please bring sweet.
 1. Of Course, all of Japanese are acceptable certainly, even Chinese people are acceptable also.

 It can be understood that cherry-blossom viewing was liberative and the scale was considerably large. And Daigo's cherry-blossom viewing also fully demonstrated the significance of aristocratic taste and the authority of Taiko Hideyoshi as a ruler. It is about, 『Sanbō-in document』 says,

 一 Hideyoshi will coming to this temple as procession.
 一、Hideyoshi promised to rebuild of cathedrals.
 一、For cherry-blossom viewing entertainments have been prepared.
 一、Donation will be done.
 一、The temple's territory is guaranteed.
 一、In addition to thousands of cherry blossom tree, many more trees will be transplanted.
 一、Thousand Reang(poem) are to be done at this temple

 On the 15th day of the next day, Hideyoshi took Hideyori and done cherry blossom viewing under fine weather.
 14th March, 1598

le are acceptable also.

 The situation of this cherry blossom viewing on 15th will be quoted below, please understand the outline. It is from『Taikosama gunki no uchi』by Ota Ushikazu who served as a civil officer of Hideyoshi.

 It was ordered as the day to hold a cherry blossom viewing March 15th 1598 and a very good preparation was done. Daigo's cherry blossoms, including those planted by Hideyoshi, were between Upper Daigo and Under Daigo. From Fushimi to the Daigo below, as surrounding this cherry blossom, Guard were placed on 23 places, each guaerd were armed with bows, guns and guns. And at the Daigoji temple, many fences were set up. Masuda Nagamori, Kyogoku Takatsugu, Fukushima Masanori, Hachisuka Iemasa and others guarded, and Yamanaka Nagatoshi, Nakae Naozumi and others were placed at the entrance to prevent, not permitted persons entry. Hideyoshi has arrived earlier and ...
  ( Omission )
 Beautiful and fine appearance cannot be expressed even in the lyrics. Light shines on the top and bottom of the mountain, the flowers compete colors, the incense was exhaled from clothes. Such a happy entertainment would have never been done before. From Monk‐emperor, Court nobles, Samurai, Kyo, Nara, Sakai and various people done gift including fabrics, sweets, Amano sake, Nara sake, Kaga's kiku-sake and Kanto's Egawa-sake. I could not count these rare items that studded gold and silver.
  ( Omission )
 The clothes change was done at the sixth tea house and changed to a beautiful outfit, and its magnificent gorgeous figure was not enough to express it in words. All day fun, banquet of sake, entertainment was extraordinary. At that time Hideyoshi recited Waka below.

  "I change the name to Miyuki mountain, and see.
    hidden flowers are ome out."

 This is Hideyoshi's poem.
 Also Han 's Gaozu unified China and went back to his hometown, when he had a banquet with the family for ten days, he recited poem like below,

   "A great wind blows, clouds fly.
   My dignity are spreded widely, go back to my hometown."

It was quite masculine that he recited this poem with a loud voice, but compared with this Gaozu's poem, it can be say that Hideyoshi's poem is pretty feminine. However, that is why, you can feel the details how Hideyoshi pretended done posing like an aristocracy men, surrounded by 3,000 beautiful women wearing beautiful kimono and seeing the cherry blossoms at Daigoji Temple, while walking around there.

 The later period, in the Qing Dynasty 's Great Feast called Manchu Han Imperial Feast, is collected the taste of the east and west sides and delicacies in various parts of the world, and it is the extravagant luxury menu which becomes 108 items even with only the main dish.
 In Japan as well, after the First World War, new rich people appeared and spent a lot of money for playing and food like at Imperial Hotel "Tiger cuisine of tiger rich man" . It was said that it breaks the mood of the scene from experts.

 As progressing to such a trend of derailment, competition for big drinks and large meals has been started, and there are many records about this.
 While Alexander the Great returns home from the conquest of India, he hosted the drinking competition at the party when he arrived at the Royal Palace of Gedrosya. General Promacas drank as much as 16 liters and was great until he got the first prize but for this reason he was alcoholic and died three days later. similarly other generals took part in this competition, but they were attacked by the cold, which resulted in the death of 41 people.

 The most famous one in Japan, in the summer of 911, the drinking competition was held by Emperor Uda. Participants gathered are Nagahira Fujiwara, Tsugitsugu Minamoto, Kaneshige Fujiwara, Toshikage Fujiwara, Tsunekuni Fujiwara, Enshi Yoshimine, Kerehira Fujiwara and Mareyo Taira, these 8 persons were known that drinking a lot of liquor. In the beginning they were drinking and competing, but they could not drink as much as reputation, they were already drunken and don't feel cold and warm after 6 or 7 cruises, the East and the West got no idea, Shamefully rolled around and vomited. Specially Mareyo Taira dranken deeply, he has tumbled and could not even stand up. It is reported that only Korehira Fujiwara could keep conscious, chosen from the emperor and given a good horse as an award. (Teijiin shiinnki)
 After that, around the time of Keio era [it is part of Edo era], Tarutsugi Jioubou and Sokofuka Ikegami tried the sake drinking competitioni in Edo.(Mizutoriki) It is said that descendants of Ikegami lived in Kawasaki until the early years of the Meiji period, preserving the cup of family treasure, which was used for sake drinking competition.(Sansanyokyo)
In this era, Bee dragon cup was popular, this big cups were often used for sake drinking, This cup was called Musashino that was drew a bee and a dragon in a pattern. This means "Let me drink". Even now there is also same name of Bee Dragon as Machiai-jaya (Japanese-style tea house restaurant with geisha) in Ginza.
 Also, in 13th March 1817, eating competition held at Ryogoku-yanagibashi. Kanjie Maruya got a prize, because he ate up 50 sweet buns, 7 sweet beans jellys, 30 rice‐cake sweets and 19 cup of teas. And Rihe Koiya drank 35ℓ sake and 17 cup of water. Kichizou Izumiya ate 54 bowls of rice and 400㎖ of soy souce. Gozaemon Kiriya ate 57 soba. Also there was other great guy who drank 27 cup of sake and 9 cup of teas, ate 3 bowls of rice and danced later.
 After that, the Tenpo eaing competition held at Manhachirou in Ryogoku yanagibasi in 7th September 1831. At that time, 162 people gathered as eating champion, When entering at the entrance of the venue, filling in the address, occupation and age of the guest at the reception, Ten dressing up man take care of paticipants, and they must eat up 15 bolws of rice and 5 bowles of miso soup at first. The rice is the finest white of Higo rice, the miso soup is Okazaki Hatcho Miso, the bowl is big enough to contain 300㎖. I thought it was hard, but all of paticipants picked up chopsticks first, ate it up soon, and went through to the main venue with a face that they were not enough yet. Three record officers and four monitors in main venue, and three accountants were calculateing there. 162 people who arrived at the seat soon and began to eat, it seemed like a hungry tiger. Among them, the following are those remaining in the record as a big eater until later generations.

 一、 Tempra : 340
    Hikonosuke Tamura

 一、 Daifuku mochi : 320
    Sadatoshi Tuji

 一、 Eeel 25kg and Rice for 5 servings
    Tokube Shimizu

 一、 Rice : 20, Sake 20, Soup 18
    Ryutaro Tamaarashi

 一、 Big bowl of rice : 18
    Shinzo Miyatogawa

 一、 Bean sweet soup with rice cake : 32
    Soushichi Komatsu

 一、 Pickled plum : 300
    Tashichi Kyoya

 一、 Pickled Daikon : 20
    Jyuro Fuji

 一、 Soba : 40
    Jinsichi Enshuya

 一、 Soba : 36
    Rikinosuke Kuniyasu

 一、 Soba : 35
    Shume Itagaki

 一、 Orange : 505
    Kahei Otaya

 一、 Dried bonito : 5
    Shusuke Kagaya

 一、 Wild boar meat : 15 servings

 一、 Deep‐fried tofu : 50

 一、 Red peppers : 2340 tassel

 一、 Sushi
    Hikohachi Tamuraya

 一、 Leak : 10 bunches
    Ryosuke Imai

 一、 Soy source : 3.2ℓ
    Ihei Kamiya

 一、 Salt : 540㎖
    Hanshiro Kanayama

 一、 Bean : 540㎖, Water : 180㎖
    Gensui Matsui

 一、 Brown sugar : 1.8kg

 The competition which entered the Taisho era and comparable to this was a dinner party held at the Minister's Official Residence in April 19 1920, at the call of Utaro Noda who was a minister. At that time, attrandants were Ietatsu Tokugawa, Yasutoshi Yanagisawa, Yoshitaro Arakawa, Hiromichi Nishikubo and others. These around 20 people tried weater cuisinne, Chinese cuisine and Japanese cuisine. Before start eating, they promised not to be a menber unless they can eat three kinds of three servings at once. And it is said that Arakawa, Nishikubo and Noda got the best results, and each won first prize.

Beginning of cooking with fire

Life in the Neolithic Age
Range of human food

 It is not so long time ago that mankind began to eat using fire. That it began in the Neolithic Age is a congruent discussion among scientists, and it is assumed that it is about 10,000 years ago or 12,000 years ago from now. Even the humanity of the Neanderthal era in the ancient Stone Age seemed to know to use fire at least. Actually, the primitive man of this era is close to the flow of water, seeking a place not far from the cliffs of Chalk, they taken firestone out from the cliff and hit with fragments of pyrite for making fire on dry wood. However, its use was only to drive out lions, bears, hyena and other beasts hiding in the cave, to prevent attacks from these beasts, and to get warm. It seems they didn't understand how to use it for seasoning.
 It was the tribe named Homo sapiens that extinct this Neanderthal man and occupied the world. At the end of the 4th Ice Age, Homo sapiens came from somewhere with the domesticated animals together, occupied the Neanderthals cave, used fire stones and stone following them. However, there are no signs for cooking by fire.
 In fact, mankind did not use fire for cooking was proved, because the cooking equipment has been not found in many relics.
 Finally, this Homo sapiens was expelled, the one who became the Lord of the world was a new human being, a Neolithic people who are our ancestor, and from that age, they started building a cooking stove for cooking by fire.

 In Japan, it is said that two gods of Okitsuhiko and Okitsuhime taught fire and in the history of China, Darenshi taught to rub each wood for to ignite making fire and the fumes. This age is vague, so it is difficult to identify, but this three sovereigns era seems to be about the past five thousand years ago. Darenshi existed before three sovereigns era, It may be said that it was almost same as the late stage of the Neolithic Age of Europe. European scholars argue that human ancestry appeared about 2 million years ago in the middle of the period between the myosin period and the briochee period. In Japan , Nihon Shoki said that the period from Tenson kōrin to the emperor Jinmu is 1,797,000 years.

The distinction of race such as Caucasian, Black, Yellow is attributable to climate and environment, and if any current race is one common ancestor, Darenshi is also a member of the Neolithic Age, it can be say that they may be a tribe who moved from the Central Asia to the east by tracing the Yellow River basin and built the Chinese civilization.
 And for Darenshi, there are various legends left in China. In 『Shi Yi Ji』 said, "As there is a big tree in Sui-míng kingdom and saint Sui arrived at the country and was resting under the tree, he saw the light came out when the birds are peaking tree, then he took a twig and rubbed it, causing a fire. So this saint Su became to called Darenshi." Also 『Gushikao』 said, "Ancient human beings did not know the cooking by fire, had drank blood and ate hair, but the saint became king with fire, turned on fire by friction and taught cooking roasted meat." In this way, as a result of knowing the cooking method by fire, there is no doubt that a big change has occurred in human life. 『禮緯含文嘉』 mentioned, "Baked the raw meat and let it pass through the fire, removing the stomachache from people. Therefore, he became to called Darenshi." And 『Hanfeizi』 ague same point as well, it said,


【 Translate 】
"People were eating tree nuts, grass seeds and clams, but it was reason of gastrointestinal disturbances and the people were became sick by raw food. However a saint appeared and taught how to make fire by fire stone, thereby removing the fishy smell from the food. That is Darenshi."

 A special person called Darenshi is mentioned here, but this person is unknown. A race may knew how to cook by fire, and it may have been the achievement of Darenshi who is a virtual person. In any case it is not hard to imagine that the cooking by fire makes the food extremely palatable, digestion becomes easy, the kinds and ranges of foods also increased, the human beings became healthy and had a tremendous effect on knowledge in general life. Therefore it is not an exaggeration to say that the gap between humans and animals began with the difference between the cooking by fire and raw eating.
 It can be imagined to some extent what kind of food people were eating at that time, if you see relics such as the shell mounds, which is waste of food, or tombs buried special person. Actually, if you search for traces of food at that time from many shell mounds that exist in many parts of Japan, the Netherlands, Scotland, and the USA, you can see the primitive fruits, clams. Not only you can see bones of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs from livestock, but also bone of boar and deer which are wild beast.
 It seems that all kinds of fish were edible, and there was evidence of eating ocean fish such as tuna, bonito etc, therefore it is inferred that large-scale ocean fishery was also done already at that time.

 They cultivated wheat, barley, millet, etc. The kernels were scorched and squashed with stones and stored in pots, taken out every time they needed, and eaten. It was not so long time ago when they could understand oats, naked barley, beans and apple are edible. Naturally, It is not contain chickens, because it is not known in this era, but a rabbits is not contained as well. This may be because They were afraid to become a coward themself when they ate such a coward animal.

 Also, about the features of the living condition of the Neolithic Age at that time, according to H · G · Wells 『World Cultural History』, it says,

(1) the presence of polished stone implements, and in particular the stone axe, which was perforated so as to be the more effectually fastened to a wooden handle, and which was probably used rather for working wood than in conflict. There are also abundant arrow heads. The fact that some implements are polished does not preclude the presence of great quantities of implements of unpolished stone. But there are differences in the make between even the unpolished tools of the Neolithic and of the Palæolithic Period.

(2) The beginning of a sort of agriculture, and the use of plants and seeds. But at first there are abundant evidences that hunting was still of great importance in the Neolithic Age. Neolithic man did not at first sit down to his agriculture. He took snatch crops. He settled later.

(3) Pottery and proper cooking. The horse is no longer eaten.

(4) Domesticated animals. The dog appears very early. The Neolithic man had domesticated cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. He was a huntsman turned herdsman of the herds he once hunted.

(5) Plaiting and weaving.

 From the above five points, we can imagine the approximate life at that time. The origins of cooking, agriculture and pastoralism are not necessarily simultaneous, it seems that there is a gap of 500 years or 1,000 years respectively. According to the logic of a scholar, cooking by fire happened first, pastoralism followed and agriculture began last. It seems that the begining of agriculture knowledge was to store fodder for livestock. That is to say, starting with livestock raising, they began to accumulate cereals of rice plant as a feed for livestock, and began to eat it as their own food.
 Interestingly, examining the history of China, Darenshi who is the father of fire food appered first, followed by Fuxi who is the founder of pastoralism, followed by Shennong who is the father of agriculture finally came out. This order is also consistent with the western scientist's argument at all. About 10,000 years period has finally brought about today's culture. It can be said that the knowledge and progress of human society actually originated from the cooking by fire.

【 reference 】
Origin of sowing.  Among the primitive ethnic groups, special rituals are performed for sowing, like a customs of ancient human sacrifice. Therefore it seems that the first sowling was related to someone's burial. The origin of sowing strated from that the food of the dead was intombed together with the dead body or grains were scattered on the corpse. (『World Cultural History』H · G · Wells)

 According to the above overview, it can be said that humankind has left the zone of a animal by cooking with fire, and the presence or absence of a cooking technique should be said to be one of the boundary lines for distinguishing a person from an animal. The ants store food, the bees bring honey to the nest, the dog buries the surplus meat in the soil, the raccoon washes the dirty food with water, and Osprey brings the fish to the nest to make a sushi, although it seems to understand the cooking at the first sight, in fact there is no ingenuity or flavouring of taste. There is nothing other than simply for the purpose of saving. Something like a monkey sake, it is gained by collecting the fermented fruit naturally falling down, but it can not be said that the monkeys brewed it by themselves. In short, the cooking of food, especially the cooking by fire is the technology that is unique to humankind. Also, the food of the animal is constant within the range, a carnivorous animals do not eat plants, a herbivorous animals do not eat meat, Lions and tigers are difficult to survive without the meat, Cows and horses can not live without plants. Sometimes there are omnivorous animals, but many are not allowed to live inside of the range only.  Just for human beings everything from vegetables, fruits, birds, beasts, cereals, fish and insects are food. Humankind survive by processing even those not suitable for edible. If there is no meat, by plants. If there is no plants, by meat. Moreover humankind are trying to survive by artificial making nitrogen meat from the air. In this way humankind conquer all the ingredients and strives to avoid hunger for food. These are primarily due to the application of fire power, we can understand it is important part by our life.