Chapter 1

The truth of taste

Section 1 : There is something existing continuously since in the beginning of human history...

Comments : Comments on related words


The truth of taste

There is something existing continuously since in the beginning of human history. The spirit of enquiry becomes knowledge, the heart seeking goodness becomes faith and a mind seeking beauty becomes an art. Furthermore, if that beauty appears as a language character, it becomes literature, it becomes painting, sculpture and architecture if it appears as color, line and point, becoming music if it appears in the form of tone, becoming the movement of limb appears as a dance. In addition, if the object for which beauty is sought becomes heterosexual, it is said to be romantic love, and If there is a feeling of beauty in the taste, this is the ultimate taste.

The taste is basically belonging to human emotions rather than science, It is normal for people have likes and dislikes of taste. In the past, King Wen of Zhou liked pickles of irises. Confucius that heard about it, he ate by trying hard and said he overcame it in the third year finally. Consequently we can understand the taste of each persons are different, even if it is a saint. Qu Dao liked water caltrop and ate, Zeng Dian liked Jujube and ate, these are same case as I mentioned already. Also Liu Zongyuan wrote about his bad experience in south china as follows, “bitter, salty, acid and spicy taste by strange taste, worm, water grass and acerbic fruits.” Which means there are people who are pleased with a completely different taste everywhere regardless of Japan or China. "There's no accounting for taste", it is very true.

200 years ago, Japanese people shuddered when they saw western people eating and sucking with a bone chicken loin. On the other hand, western people shuddered when they saw Japanese people eating raw fish by chopsticks. Because they thought Japanese are a kind of felis. These cases are differences based on food culture and eating habit. Therefore, even Japanese can understand the essence of cheese, if they are familiar with western food. Also, westerners can find delicious taste in fish organs (Uruka), if they are familiar with Japanese food. Figuratively speaking, it is same as reading Shakespeare books. Because of reader can understand the essences of Shakespeare based on each intellectual skills. Just like that people who have a desire to taste deeply can feel the taste further increases, but those who are shallow in taste can not feel it and can only taste untill lower level.

Sometimes the judgment about taste falls into dogmas and prejudice. However, if you refuse the taste duty to say so, you will have to refuse that quest for music and art for the same reason. Therefor Yuan Mei said in 『Suiyuan Shidan』 that "It does not guarantee that everyone in the world has the same taste as me, but when taking the handle of the ax and cutting the axis of the ax, the dimensions do not change much."
Also Mencius said "People want the taste of Yi-ya for tongue, people want music of Shi Kuang for ears, people agree the beauty of Zidu. Because everyone have same preference for tongue of taste, ears of music and beauty of eyes". It means all humans have the same range of taste. The same is true for this book, it is nothing other than catching "food" in a way that recommends my taste and pursuing the true taste in food from the breadth of taste shared by many people.

【 reference 】
 Yi-ya was a famous chef of Duke Huan of Qi.
 Shi Kuang was musician of Zhou dynasty era. He pursued the ultimate music as a musician. When He played music, natural disasters occurred and people afraid.

The most of philosophies are based on scientific ways, but it can be said that it is ultimately expression of intelligent thought of persons. Therefore Kant has philosophy of Kant, Laozi has philosophy of Laozi, and there are not same. Because Science emphasizes objective data, but philosophy is based on intuition which is a subjective judgment. Also taste is also based on sensory judgment in the same way as philosophy. [ 美味求真 : Bimikyushin ] is philosophy of cuisine. Therefore Guan Zhong said "Food and rest are necessary for mind restitution. Therefore Guan Zhong said, ‟Food and rest are necessary for mind restitution. Therefore saint familiar about meals and take a rest moderately. And saint never do bad thing for one's body, decide to live an orderly life.” Like this, Guan Zhong explained relationship food, philosophy and mind.

Cooking is not easy. Not only are highly delicate and skillful techniques required, but also people have a variety of different taste preferences. Therefore it is not possible to explain it by mouth, also not possible by sentences. That's way, 『Shijing』 said, “There are many plates on the table.” Voltaire respected the chef as a god person. Ben Jonson said in 『The Staple of News』 as follows, “He has nature in a pot, bove all the Chymists, or airy brethren of the rosie-cross. He is an architect, an ingineer, a soldier, a physician, a philosopher, a general mathematician.” Han Yu said,“Music of Shi Kuang, Medical of Bian Que, Politics of Emperor Yao, these are should be same as technique in which [ 庖丁 : The name of chef ] cutting up an ox.” Han Yu counts it as the best art of man.

In 『Book of Changes』, There is a word [ 鼎亨 : Simmer by a tripod kettle ] . And 『Book of Documents』 mentions about [ 塩梅 : Seasoning is just right ]. Also in 『Book of Documents』 says, “Make it seasoned just like boiling the stew.” , in 『Book of Poetry』 says, “Knowing to boil fish is to know to rule the people” , in 『Han Feizi』 says, “You should rule over the great country just like trying to simmer small fish.”
Chen Ping says, “To rule over the world is just like a cutting meat, cooking is the same as politics, avoiding futile interference, and should be based on freedom and equality in accordance with natural providence.” In Chinese, the character "宰" is used for both the chef and the minister. Even in Japan, cooking means ruling the world.

In Eupoe, Charles V era, in the document of the Department of State, the menu of the imperial cuisine was stated and gastronomy was treated in politics.  [ H.G Wells : The outline of history, being a plain history of life and mankind ]
And in Zhou dynasty era, The prime minister had to control food and drink by himself, it was by a part of government system.  [ Rites of Zhou ]
All of these example show that there is same key points of cooking skills and politics.

In the heyday of Greece, it was honer that the royal aristocrat himself deal with cooking, it was done as a social art. Also in Japan, in Heian era, at the guests' feast, the owner sat himself in front of the cutting board, pride himself on cooking with a knife on his right hand and chopsticks on his left hand. If the master can not do that, a skilled cook acted on behalf of the master.

【 Reference 】
In 『Uji Shūi Monogatari』, When Mochitsune KINO begins cooking Aramaki salmon with a knife, he ordred bring cutting bord, Mochitsune had chopsticks and pull out the knife from the sheath...
Also in 『Essay of Sadatake ISE : Kouketsu』 mentions about the cutting of crane.

There are many people who fun eating, gastronomic enthusiast. However there are very few people who can understand a taste. 『Doctrine of the Mean』 say, “There is no one who does not eat and drink, but there are few to know the taste.”
『The Book of Changes』 says, “to be impartiality is good on eating and drinking alcohol.”
In 『Buddhist scriptures』 mentions one of the perfect physical features that only Buddha has has is a long tongue and everything to eat is full of good taste.
In 『Scripture Theory』 mentions that the rich man of first is absorbed in the houses, but the rich man of the third generation will be absorbed in clothes and food. New rich man wants to decorate houses and make buildings extensive, but the sense of clothes and foods, it is not easy to acquire without some generations.

It is not always true that people who like eating are who understand taste also. Hevey drinker and big eater can't understand the taste, because both olfaction and taste have not reached delicacy and exquisite points. In China, Liu Ling was a famou a hevey drinker, Lian Po(Zhao) and Dian Wei(Cao Wei) are famous of a hevey eater, but such kind of people are not related to [ 美味求真:Bimikyushin ] at all.

Additionally it is not always true that the persons who like good taste who understand taste also. In China, Duke Huan of Qi and Charles V and Katsumoto Hosokawa in Japan, these famous guys pursuit of taste have reached until a kind of unbalanced pole. Duke Huan bacame like steamed human meat, Carl V deflected the eel pie and Katsumoto Hosokawa became to say that he did not want to eat unless it was a carp from Yodogawa river.

If you understand the taste, you will never be like them. Rather understanding the correct position of the taste, having a wide range of the taste, not showing strong attention to rare ones only, avoid unbalanced diets and pursuing true taste to all food.
If you are trying to find such a person in history, Yi Yin and Yi-ya were in China. And Archestratus was in Greek, Petronius was in Rome. And in Jaoan, Yusai Hosokawa was in the past. Also Kinmochi Saionji in modern times.

Yi Yin could dichinkish mixed water from Zihi river and Shengshui river. Kinmochi Saionji was abke to tell corrct the year of old sake and never made a mistake it.

【 Reference 1 】
Turkish is the best national of drinking water and they can judge kind of water. Even in Japan, when sencha became popular during Bunka era, curious people gathered frequently and put up Sencha tea. And they were proud of distinguish the water from Tamagawa or Sumidagawa and well water.
In China, Li Deyu, Lu Yu and Pu Yuan are famous persons who could distinguish the taster of water. Pu Yuan could distinguish water of Fu river and water of Jiang river, even when mixing both water.
Yuan Kitamura who was a doctor in Katada, Goshu, he has been told that he could distinguish the taste of production area of fish and birds. Chinese book, 『San Qui Ji』 says a story about someone ate all the roasted goose and could distinguish black feather or white feather. This is also a story telling you that it is sensitive to the taste.

【 Reference 2 】
Petronius was the minister of Nero in Roman times and was the secretary of the banquet at the court. He wrote twenty satire novels, it is including Cena Trimalchionis (Trimalchio's dinner). He suicide by slander of rival Gaius Ofonius Tigellinus in the age of 66 AD.

If you are looking for the ultimate taste, you should try to eat local specialty. however it doesn't mean that you must eat up all of delicacy over the world. let see some of them in Japan.

Sea bream of Naruto, Abalone of Iki, Volva habei of Lake Biwa, Hypomesus nipponensis of Kasumigaura, Turban shell of Enoshima, Bonito of Kamakura, Japanese horseradish of Amagi, Wakame of Naruto, Pork of Nagasaki, Beef of Kobe, Grouse in Hokkaido, Salmon in Kitakami River, Korean mountain turkey, Taiwanese deer, Rock mushrooms of Mount Kongō, Kyoto's Matsutake, Apple of Korea, Pear in Okayama, Crucian carp of Lake Biwa, Carp of Yodo, Globefish of Yamaguchi Bakan, Shinoyama's Boar, Eel of Yanagawa, Ayu of Hita, Chicken of Kita chikihou, Snapping turtle of Yatsukangawa, Pickles from Gyeongseong, Sagohachi pickles of Aizu, Crucian carp of Onuma , Sakhalin icefish, Manila clam of Himakajima, Snakehead of Akita, Chara-persimmon of Saga, Loquat of Mogi, Akita's fish sauce, Kumano yam, Cod of Echizen, Tilefish of Suruga, Anglerfish of Mito, Kanazawa's great crab, Kibi's Kinzan Snapper, Castle under marbled sole of Bungo, Jellyfish of Bizen, Harvest fish at Banshu Nada, Oysters of Hiroshima, Clam of Kuwana, Citrus of Taiwan, Korean cabbage, Konowata of Atsuta, Karasumi of Nagasaki, Sakurajima Daikon radish, Imperial persimmon of Yamato, Japanese flying squid of Saganoseki, Kamaboko of Uwajima, Japanese sea bass of Matsue, Turbot of Wakasa, Freshwater clam of Seta, Water shield of Teganuma, Mutsugoro of Isahaya, Gori fish of Kanazawa, Octopus ocellatus of Kishiwada, Swan of Aomori, Grape of Koshu, Longan of Tainan, Waina trout of Lake towada, So-iuy mullet of Hachiro-gata, Tsugumi of Kiso, Pacific saury of Awa Province, Soba of Shinshu, Kuzu of Yoshino, Squid of Sado Island, Flatfish of Ise bay.

All of these are the proud of good taste to the world. In the end of the Edo era, the hundreds of lord daimyo chose the region's prestigious goods and presented frequently to the Shogun. I list them as follows.

Nagoya Ayu sushi, Dried rice cake, Benincasa hispida, Dried persimon, Mino persimon, Daikon radishe, Konowata, Wild goose, crane

Wakayama Tsuribin sushi, Dried rice cake, Miyazaki powder, Somen noodles, Yamato persimon, Whale, Orange, Lonicera japonica, Sea bream in sake cake

Saijyo Salted small sea bream, Somen noodles, Carp
Mito Kuzu powder, First Salmon, Second salmon, Third salmon, Fourth salmon, Fifth salmon, Angler, Soaked sweet sea bream, crane

Tsuyama Salted Duck, Soaked warabi, Sea bream, Sea cucumber, Dried cod, Kuzu power, Ginkgo nut

Fukui Sea bream, Dried cuttlefish, Dried flounder, Soaked warabi, Mackerel, Lotus rice, Sea bream, Salted ayu, Raw cod, Goose, Duck
Matsue Sea bream, Pyropia pseudolinearis, Avalon、Oba pear, Tomoshima yellowtail
Maebashi Melon, Pear, Malon, Persimon
Akashi Sea bream, Salted flathead grey mullet, Dried octopus, Avalon
Aizu Salted salmon eggs, Quill, Japanese torreya nuts, Marmelo, First salmon, First craen, Matsuo pear, Walnuts, Candle sea bream
Kanazawa Sea bream, Cod, Seaweed, Mozuku seaweed, First mackerel, Fukuno dried gourd shavings, Mackerel bowels, Sea cucumber, Momiji seaweed, Kuzu powder, Warabi powder, Wajima somen noodles, Small mackerel, Shukin, Shimizu rice, Oni warabi, Yellowtails, Nozawa burdock, Soaked sliced mackerel
Daishoji(Kashu) Dried flounder, Salted mackerel, Salted fish, Kuzu powder, Dried sea bream, Salted duck
Kagoshima Suger, Soaked asparagi Radix, Salted ark shell, Awamori, Lotus rice, Salted mackerel, Dried icefish, Ryukyu dried sea slug, Sakurajima orange, Grilled ayu
Sendai Sea bream, Cod, Dried rice、Salmon, Crane, Bean goose, Yellow hawk, Tea, Swan, Salted boiled shell, Bran pickled cod
Uwajima Uwajima dried squid, Avalon, Uwa sardine, Dried sea bream
Kumamoto Mulberry wine, Soaked sea bream, Suger soaked plam, Ginnan, Ginkgo nut, Dried sea bream, Candied Asparagi Radix, Bran pickled crucian carp, Korean candy, Dried squide, Dried sea slug, Somen Noodle, Shimizu seawead, Honey pickled, Salted warabi, Kikuchi seawead, Bran pickled ayu, Yatsushiro orange, Chinese Jellyfish, White stem of taro, Salte boiled avalon
Fukuoka sugar-candy, Hakata somen noodle, Hakata neri-sake, Burdock, Sea squirt, Dried sea bream, Clove、Borneol
Hiroshima Dried sea bream, Saijyu persimon, Saijyu dried persimon, Mihara sake, Salted ayu sushi
Hagi Salted sea bream, Soakedsliced avalon, Salted small sea bream, Sea urchin eggs, Saltes crane, Salted shinner, Toasted avalon, Soaked sliced sea bream
Saiki Dried sea bream, Sea cucumber, Dried bonit
Saga Trough shell, Suger candy, Pickled plum, Jelleyfish
Okayama Sea bream in sake-lees, Gurnard, Salted bonit, Swim bladder, Dried sturgeon, Crane, Jellyfish
Hikone Funazushi(Crusian carp sushi), Momiji Funazushi, Samegai rice cake, Goose, Duck
Tsu Sea bream, Soaked duck in winter, Kuzu powder, Yamato persimon, Salted crane, Goose, Salted sea bream
Kurume Chikugo orange, Bergamot orange, Salted duck, Trough shell
Morioka Potato starch, Salmon, Crane, Bean goose, Swan, Yam, Yellow hawk
Matsuyama Karasumi, Mountain thrush, Died pike conger, Wheat flour
Kuwana Dried ice fish, Salted striped mullet, Ashikubo green tea, Sando chestnut
Musashi Rock tripe、Black soy beans、Sweet poteto、Pungent radish、Dried osmund
Gunma Kuzu, Soba
Yamato Nanto sake, Yoshino kuzu, Ayu in sake cake, Yamato persimon
Suruga Okitsu sea bream, Salted striped mullet, Ashikubo green tea, Sando chestnuts
Oumi Funazushi, Crusian carp in sake cake, Salted warabi, Salted matsutake mushroom
Shinshu Salted warabi, Soba, Udo
Odawara Small plam, Dried horse mackerel, Taro, Tilefish, Orange
Yamashiro Carp, Funazushi, Kuzu powder, Duck
Usuki Mozuku seawead, Dried ayu, Orange
Mutsu Pheasant, Bean goose, Swan, Pickled warabi, Crane
Oushu Refined rice flour, Salted trout, Pickled warabi, Ginkgo nuts, Chinese potato, Pheasant
Tatebayashi Chinese potato, Wheat flour, Soba
Sakura Arum root, Wheat flour, Sesami, Duck
Tsushima Carot, Dried sea bream, Salted yellowtail, Leopard-skin
Tsuchiura bamboo shoot, Chestnuts, Ginko nuts, Goose, Swan
Kasama Black soy beans, Refined rice flour, Matsutake mashroom, Adzuki bean, Crane, Potet, Persimon
Takasaki Black soy beans, Kuzu powder, Solted bonito, Daiko radish
Shimabara Dried sea bream, Mozuku seawead, Wakame, White suger, Plam in sake cake, White honey, Ogange, Candied fruite
Mikawa Rock crab, Kuzu powder, Short-necked clam
Funai - Oita Dried sea bream, Plam in sake cake, Ayu in rice bran, Ginko nuts
Tanba Solted Matsutake mashroom, Kuzu powder, The Japanese pepper(Sanshou), Chestnuts
Shinshu Refined rice flour, Soba, Wheat, Black soybeans
Hamamatsu Persimon, Kuzu powder, Dry fermented soybeans
Kishiwada Small poulp in sake cake, Salted striped mullet, Dried plaice, Dried tilefish, Izumi pike conger, Mozuku seawead, Dried pike conger, Small sardine
Tanba Matsutake Mashroom, Melon, Japanese pepper, Tanba chestnuts
Shishu - Takashima Crusian carp, Ayu, Dried rice cake, Soba, Dried sea bream, Chicken, Pheasant
Shima Striped mulle, Sea bream, Wakame, Walnuts, Soybeans, Dried yellowtail, bonito, Solted avalon's gut
Matsumae Bear skin, Kuzu powder, Hawk, Black beans
Hitoyoshi Solted shinner, Shinner in sake cake
Akou Burned salt, Kuzu powder, Dried sea slug
Kashiwabara Dried sea bream, Dried cod, Japanese spice, Tanaba chestnuts, Tanaba small chestnuts
Yamato Sea bream, Yoshino kuzu powder, Yoshino warabi powder, Dried sea slug
Mikawa Wakame, Melon, Dried yellowtail, Dried icefish

  Some area have no special products, some are not presented. And there are many offerings, but anything is mediocrity, or those overlapping with other are omitted. Please check details from 『Taisei Bukan』.

If there is a person who wants to seek it widely on the continent, not limited in Japan. Please check Chinese delicacy from 『Tian zhong ji』 also.

嘉物江皋緑箷之筍 (Bamboo shoots)
洞庭紫鬛之魚 (Fish)
昆山龍胎之脯(Dried meat)
𤣥圃鳳足之葅(Solted meat)
千里蓴羔萬丈名膾 (Water shield, Sliced raw sea bass)
洛陽董徳之糜(rice porridge)
張掖北門之豉(Miso paste)
洞庭負霜之橘(Citrus tachibana)
犓牛之腴肥狗之和(Beef and dog)
熊蟠之臑芍藥之醤(Bear hand and Seasonings of peonies)
薄耆之灸鮮鯉之膾 (Roasted meat and Sliced raw carp)
秋黃之蘇白露之茹 (Cheese and eggplant)
山梁之粲豢豹之胎 (Panther's womb)
楚苗之食安胡之飯 (Rice)

Also please check other from 『Youyang zazu』as below.

If you still do not get tired of this, let's go back to the ancient times far, and introduce the ideal food of Yi Yin who was a taste saint in China.

Delicacy of meat are lip of Shojo(orangutan) , roasted badger, tail of cuckoo and oxtail. There is eggs of Phenix which people called Yokumin eat. Delicacy of fish is flying fish of Guàn shui. Delicious vegitable are mashroom of kūn lún, Tusuki flower which is said to bring immortality, Leaf of chì tree and xuán tree which are in the east of zhi gu. vegitable called Jiā shù, Coriander of Huayang Mountain, Yunmeng's celery, radish of juqu and grass of Tuying. Delicacy of seasoning are Yangpo's ginger, zhaoyao's cinnamon, Fish sauce which are made of carp and tuna, Salt of daixia, nectar of Zaijie and fish egg of zhangzé. Delicacy of rice are rice of Xuanshan, millet of Buzhōu, millet of Yangshān and black millet of Nanhai. Delicacy of water is a dew of Sanwei mountain, well water of Kunlun, water of Yueshan and spring of Gāoquán. Delicacy of fruits are fruit of Shātáng, a variety of fruits above Touyuan that emperors ate, Tachibana of Jiangpu and Yuzu of Yunmeng.
All these are the tastes of the heavens. ( ※ the source is『Lüshi Chunqiu』)
In the past it was impossible to taste such taste unless it was emperor. Now, the convenience of transportation improves and it is not difficult to get these from anywhere in the world. Therefore, we should use the power of water and fire, explore its taste by harmony of Gomi(five tastes), and have to reach the truth. Here, I would like to introduce the taste saint, the words of Yi Yin. He states as follows.

‟There are three type of each foods which have each negative features, those in the water have a fishy smell coming to the nose, carnivores have ammonia smell and the taste of grass-eating animals has a peculiar smell. These meat have a good taste even though these have such kind of smell. There is a reason why the meat has a good taste like this despite of having such a smell. Originally, the base of the taste is by water. In cooking using seasoning and heating way, how to handle fire is important. Some times, it is necessary to take a long time heating for cooking, to reduce smell and remove the ammonia odor and fishy smell, but don't cut off good parts of the material, and don't change the essence of the material itself. You must not something to lose. Regarding the seasoning, it should be done with Gomi. (five taste:sweet, salty, bitter, sour and spicy) Which taste to add first, or to add afterwards, and the subtlety of the balance and taste balance must be based on theory. Changes in the pot are subtle, so I can not explain well with words. For example, it can be said that it is like the one that skillfully the horse and shoots the bow, or change in Yin and Yang and changing of the four seasons. Therefore, the cooking does not impair the quality of the material even if it is heated for a long time, it does not break down even if it is soft, not sweet even if it is thick taste, it is not intense both sour and salty. The original taste is not damaged, it is not intense even if it is spicy, it is not thin even if it is plain, it is not greasy even if it is rich.”

As Yi Yin explained, you should firstly examine these things and acquire them. Learning from letters, exsisting from letters. You may start from rules first, but you have to understand the flush of inspiration beyond the rules. Always beyond the rule from letters and transcend, and should stand on your own free insight. You must respond flexibly to changing and make that good part of yourself. By this insight, you can understand the location of the goddess of taste, seeking this with all your enthusiasm continuously, welcoming it with sincerity. It should be recognized that people who are inconvenient in seeking deliciousness are not short of money, rather lack of knowledge and sense.

If you are not trying to concentrate on it, you can't get delicious food such as dragon's brain and phenix's liver. In other words, Taste God does not always appear only in front of the rich and noble's dining table. Rather, appearing in front of the people who love delicious taste and seek it on the table.
There is also ultimate taste in one melon, and a taste god is also dwelling in one sardine. If so, it can be said that cooking brings out the merits from each material, make each manifestation and brings out the advantages each. In other words, cuisine is to kill living things, but ideally to try to make use of creatures as food ingredients. In the end, the kitchen knife is not a tool to kill, but a tool for blowing breath in.
In this way, cuisine should not necessarily be accomplished by substance and wealth, but should understand that it is a mind seeking delicacy based on knowledge and sense, and by technology. We must do our utmost to do what we can do with people's hands, cherish the power of materials, love it, ask for it and devote myself to every grace from the heavens. Taste God appears on your table, like a beautiful woman who changes her appearance according to the person you love, will surely reward you in response to your insight.

If you understnd the truth of deliciousness and gaining the highest enlightenment, you must step away from all temptations and lots of greed, gradually progress to thinking towards about ultimate things of taste and stay there. Tang 's Yijian Su, famous as a person who understands the taste, once, he answered the question of Emperor Taizong of Tang, saying "taste is not absolutely fixed". Tang of Yijian Su, famous as a person who understands the taste, once he answered the question of Emperor Taizong of Tang, "taste is not absolutely fixed".
After a rich taste, people want a light taste, after a greasy taste, people want a plain taste, if people are tired of fat, ask for sour things, after the spicy things people will want to eat sweets. This is, there is not an absolutely definite things, and these are like resembles a visit of a moving season like spring, summer, autumn and winter.

If the liver of the phoenix is like the liver of a chicken and the brain of the dragon is easily obtainable like a eel, Fèng gān lóng nǎo [ 鳳肝龍脳:phoenix's liver and doragon's brain ] would not have obtained the authority of taste. Desire arises because it is difficult to obtain,Wish is caused by trying to obtain something that it does not have.
Sardines and sweet potatoes are looked down because they are easily available in large quantities. On the other hand, Bào tāi máo xiàng [ 豹胎旄象 : Panther's womb and oxtail ] is hard to obtain and value is high because of its rarity.
Sea bream, abandoned as a worthless fish from Westerners, has been valued as delicacy fish in our country. On the other hand, sardine is despised as a bottom fish, but in the West it is valued as a grand dish. Even by looking at these examples, those who understand the taste do not think that it is valuable because the price is high, nor despise those true taste because they are easy to obtain in quantity.

Therefore, 『Ogasawara Shorei Taizen』 said, "the beauty taste from the mountain and sea are simple ingredients like, Warabi, dried plum, jellyfish". Even if it is extreme, it can be said that it is showing one aspect of the truth. Needless to say, price and nutrition are not on same balanced. Indeed, that road is not far away, it is close to it. It is like, although one could not find it by searching spring all day, came back home and found a spring in a branch of plums at the window side. Just like that the pilgrims of the gourmet kingdom will have to undrstand that returning to the original place even if they try to proceed.
The story of Prince of Abyssinia shows, "everything are same". Consequently everyone must understand that it is not easy to decide up and down about things.
Rome's Seneca said, "In order to satisfy human craving, it is not difficult to get something that is needed naturally without having to surround other countries, to embark on the ocean or to cross the field, Thankfully, It is existing in the nature, it is distributed to everyone by the nature".

As explained above, you have to understand that even if it is difficult to the ultimate seeking the taste, the taste god often reveals its appearance according to the sense and quest of the person. However if you are planning to explore its taste from ordinary restaurants, it would be like "seeking fish at tree." Because these restaurants love not a taste god but a lot of customers only. Many of such customers want only to drink alcohol, play with the geisha. Even if it is not so, they don't look for the truth of the taste, just satisfying pursuing a strange thing and seeking a rare one only. Therefore, ordinary food falls into the skill of not important points, and it sticks on boring details that only decorate the appearance. In the end, such a restaurant abuses sugar, soup stock, and the taste of material. There is no sincerity to do the best method on the technology and ingredients, moreover do despise against the grace of the heaven. Therefore, no matter how many dishes are lined up, there is no sense of tension, so it is difficult to seek the truth of taste there.

【 Referrence 】
 Eating by ears [耳餐] and eating by eyes [目食], these words are from Chinese languge about cusine. Eating by ears means the cuisine featuring delightful to listen to being a rare high price, it is not good cuisine for a mouth. Eating by eyes means the cuisine featuring delightful for eyes which boasts a large number of items and it is not a taste dish.

Greek of Pericles was a politician like a high-quality philosopher, but during the life as a long-time politician for decades, he did not invite best friends, did not take part in social occasions and did not attend any kind of entertainment. He never responded and never shared the supper with anyone. As the only exception in his lifetime, He has attended the nephew 's wedding ceremony, but he went back early after the wedding ceremony, did not attend the supper. Regarding such an unfriendly attitude, historians have speculated that it was for keeping dignity. But from a different point of view it can be thought that it was a reason of food relish and avoided to take ordinary meals.

Jin dynasty of He Zheng has been told that he always avoided meals even when attended the feast of the court, because he ate only excellent taste in the meal. Among the gentlemen of our country today, I wonder there are anyone else who are like Pericle or He Zheng who avoid mediocre meal in the city...

【 Referrence 】
Regarding Hōcyō [ 庖丁:Kitchen knife ], various mistakes has been told in our country. Actually, "Encyclopedia of Japan Encyclopedia of Japan" and "Japanese cuisine Encyclopedia" are all misinterpreting their interpretation about this matter. Some of them have been explained that [庖] means the kitchen and [丁] means cooking staff in the kitchen, therefore they insist Hōcyō [庖丁] means cooking chef originally. Other explaining are confusing with a cooking sword.
Hōcyō is the name of a man who are written in 『Zhuangzi』 and 『Lü Shi Chun Qiu』. These said, "It is said that a man called Hōcyō [庖丁] skillfully disassembled the cow by choosing cutting points. At first he was watching the cows themselves, but after three years he was able to dismantle without seeing the cows. Since 19 years, he used a knife, but the blade to be just sharpened because he follows the providence of Heaven allways, and the blade goes to the right gap leading by the providence natural." It should be understood that Hōcyō [庖丁] is this person.